Bishop v. Smith (2014)
Whether prohibition on same-sex marriage directly violates the Fourteenth Amendments Privileges and Immunities, Due Process, and Equal Protection Clauses.
Hollingsworth v. Perry (2013)
Whether Californias Proposition 8, a voter-enacted ballot initiative that amended the California Constitution to allow only marriage between a man and a woman, violated the rights of same-sex couples to marriage under due process and equal protection provided by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution, and whether if California, having previously recognized same-sex marriage, can over-turn the this law through a referendum.
Bostic v. Schaefer (2013)
Whether Virginias laws prohibiting same-sex marriage and refusing to recognize out-of-state homosexual marriages violates the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses.
Latta v. Otter (2014)
Whether three of Idahos laws that variously recognize only marriages between a man and a woman, a second that provides no mechanism for recognizing the validity of out-of-state, same-sex marriages, and a third law banning the legal recognition of same-sex marriages in general, violate the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the 14th Amendment.
Kitchen v. Herbert (2014)
Whether the three provisions of Utah law prohibiting marriage between members of the same sex and defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman violate individual rights guaranteed under the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the 14th Amendment. Therefore, whether Utah must issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples and recognize out-of-state marriage licenses of same-sex couples.
Obergefell v. Hodges
Whether homosexuals have a fundamental right to marry under the 14th Amendment, and thus whether the Supreme Court can order states to issue gay marriage licenses and to recognize out-of-state gay marriage licenses, despite state laws or amendments to the contrary.
Gonzales v. Carhart (2007)
Whether Congresss Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act is constitutional. Specifically, whether the Act places an undue burden on abortion-seekers, based on holdings from Roe v. Wade (1973) and Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992).
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002)
Whether Ohios school voucher program offends the Establishment Clause of the Constitution by allowing parents to direct tax money for tuition to private schools that may have a religious affiliation.