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Patrick J. Garrity

Patrick J. Garrity is a research faculty affiliate with the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia and a Senior Fellow of the Claremont Institute.

 

Dr. Garrity has served as a senior policy analyst for the Los Alamos Scientific Labratories and a fellow at the Johns Hopkins University Foreign Policy Institute in Washington, D.C. He has published widely on international affairs and American foreign policy.

Dr. Garrity holds the M.A. and Ph.D. in Government from the Claremont Graduate School.

Articles found on this site:
Foxes and Hedgehogs
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: November 6, 2018
This article appeared in: Vol. XVIII, Number 4, Fall 2018

Our modern sensibility should correspond to the ancient virtues of prudence and statecraft.

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Regarding Henry
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 11, 2016
This article appeared in: Vol. XVI, Number 3, Summer 2016

A look at Kissinger's early idealism. 

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Education of an American Diplomat
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: April 27, 2015
In December 1816, John Quincy Adams, the U.S. minister to Great Britain, responded to a request from Christopher Hughes, a young American, about how to prepare, and specifically about how to study, for a career in diplomacy. (Hughes had been one of the secretaries to the American Peace Commission in...
 
The Falkland Islands War: Then and...
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: April 27, 2015
Patrick J. Garrity discusses Soviet and Russian interest in the Falklands....
 
The Third Nuclear Age?
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: April 27, 2015
The story is told about a young “whiz kid,” one of the civilian analysts and numbers-crunchers often associated with the RAND Corporation, who challenged what he regarded as the unsophisticated thinking of the uniformed U.S. military during the 1950s and ’60s. The whiz kid got into...
 
The Hungarian Resolution
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: January 20, 2014
In the pantheon of significant presidential statements of American foreign policy—such as Washington's Farewell Address, the Monroe Doctrine, Wilson's Fourteen Points, the Truman Doctrine, and the Reagan Doctrine—we lack an equivalent pronouncement by Abraham Lincoln. The Civil W...
 
Shielding the Republic
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: December 18, 2013
During World War I, the New Republic's Walter Lippmann temporarily put aside his career in journalism and joined the Wilson Administration, where he participated in the "Inquiry," America's ill-fated effort at postwar planning. He soon became disillusioned with liberal interna...
 
Kim's Great Game
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: November 22, 2013
Rudyard Kipling, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907, is known today as the poet laureate of British imperialism and of the "White Man's Burden"—titles that are no longer much in fashion, although Kipling's literary reputation, which was on the wane even before h...
 
Defending the Rimland
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: October 28, 2013
American national security policy in the 21st century is conducted on the foundations of a global network of military bases and strategic alliances that first emerged during World War II and the early years of the Cold War. The American security network had many fathers, above all Franklin Roosevelt...
 
The Pacificus-Helvidius Debates
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: September 23, 2013
In April 1793 the United States was confronted with its most serious foreign policy crisis since the end of the American Revolution, when the Washington Administration learned that the recently-constituted French Republic had declared war on England and the Dutch Republic. France, with which the Uni...
 
Harold W. Rood and the German Problem
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: September 3, 2013
Great powers typically exhibit well-defined patterns of behavior despite apparent changes in political regimes. Certain "problems" or "questions" in international relations have persisted for decades and centuries. Identifying and understanding these problems permit the student o...
 
The Pivot of Europe
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: September 3, 2013
Whenever a reviewer in The Guardian newspaper proclaims a book on history or strategy to be "right wing and wrong-headed," it is probably worth picking up a copy. The latest book so honored is Europe: The Struggle for Supremacy, from 1453 to the Present (Basic Book...
 
The Fleet was Ready
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 5, 2013
In 1911, when Winston Churchill became First Lord of the Admiralty, he oversaw major revisions to the Admiralty's basic strategic concept for European war, and in the war plans associated with this concept. These changes were necessitated by a shift in the probable enemy of a future war (Germany...
 
Churchill and the World Crisis
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 5, 2013
Winston Churchill's five-volume The World Crisis (1923-31), part memoir, part history, of the Great War and its aftermath, does not receive the attention of some of his better known writings. This may have to do with Churchill's defense of his controversial role in the Dardanelles ...
 
And the War Came
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 5, 2013
Allen C. Guelzo continues to amaze. In the past two years he has published what is probably the best single volume history of the Civil War since James McPherson's 2008 book, Battle Cry of Freedom (Fateful Lightning: A New History of the Civil War and Reconstruction), along with a detailed ...
 
A Tough Third Act
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: June 19, 2013
With the publication in May of The Guns at Last Light: The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, journalist and historian Rick Atkinson brings to a close his Liberation Trilogy, an account of the Allied victory in the Mediterranean and Western Europe in World War II. The first volume, An ...
 
Of Wildcats and Whales
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: June 19, 2013
Rick Atkinson, a journalist and historian, has recently completed a three-volume series called the Liberation Trilogy. The series covers the role of the United States (largely the U.S. Army) in defeating Germany and its allies in the European theater of operations in World War II. The first volume i...
 
A Difficult Dawn
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: June 19, 2013
If we based our understanding of history purely on popular culture—specifically that provided by Hollywood—we might think of World War II along the following lines: The war started when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor (interrupting a number of love lives and little league games); then...
 
Classics Review: Imperial Diplomacy
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: May 28, 2013
During his tenure at Harvard University, Professor William L. Langer published a number of highly influential studies of diplomatic history and U.S. foreign policy, including an examination (with S. Everett Gleason) of U.S. isolationism and the domestic run-up to World War II. Langer also served as ...
 
China and Strategic Paradox
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: May 28, 2013
Edward Luttwak never writes a dull book. His most recent, The Rise of China vs. The Logic of Strategy, is no exception. It is a mixture of objective analysis, policy recommendations, and much railing at fools and strategic illiterates (of whom there seem to be many). It is often difficult to te...
 
War Liberals
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: May 28, 2013
With the exception of World War II and the early Cold War era, a significant component of the educated American elite has been more opposed to war compared to American non-elites, and still is today. In an important essay in the January-February issue of The American Interest, "War and the...
 
Classics Review: Nazi Bureaucrats
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: April 24, 2013
After World War II, former German Foreign Office State Secretary Ernst von Weizsäcker defended German civil servants by distinguishing between service to the German nation and the Hitler regime: "As a civil servant, one does not serve a constitution, but the Fatherland. One serves whicheve...
 
The Sage of Singapore
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: April 24, 2013
"Harry" Lee Kuan Yew is often referred to as "the Sage of Singapore." The Cambridge University-educated Lee was the founding father of that modern independent city-state. He served as its prime minister from 1959 to 1990, overseeing its rise as the first of the Southeast Asian &q...
 
The Falklands Factor
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: April 24, 2013
"Don't go wobbly on us, George." For many Americans, these were the words that most readily jumped to mind when they heard of the death of Margaret (Baroness) Thatcher earlier this month. Prime Minister Thatcher was addressing the elder President Bush shortly after Saddam Hussein...
 
Classics Review: The Building of a Navy
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: March 26, 2013
In March 1889, a hurricane destroyed or disabled three American warships in the Samoan harbor of Apia, where they had been deployed to support the United States in a political dispute with Britain and Germany over the status of the islands. The accident left the United States without any effective n...
 
Uncle Sam's Web-Feet
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: March 26, 2013
Damn the torpedoes! full speed ahead!" A good many, students of strategy included, might wrack our brains if suddenly challenged to name the American naval commander who uttered this immortal command. John Paul Jones? Oliver Hazard Perry? George Dewey? Bull Halsey? Many of us would take the laz...
 
Engineers of Victory
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: March 26, 2013
Why do nations win wars? The most obvious answer is superior political and military leadership, the Masters and Commanders who dominate traditional historical accounts. In the case of World War II, for instance, one would give a decisive edge to the triumvirate of Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin ov...
 
Supreme Command
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: February 19, 2013
In the spring of 2002, Eliot Cohen, a professor of Strategic Studies at the Johns Hopkins University's School of Advanced International Studies, authored a widely discussed treatise on civil-military relations, Supreme Command: Soldiers, Statesmen, and Leadership in Wartime. Cohen's acc...
 
Classics Review: America and the Revolutions of 1848
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: February 19, 2013
When the European revolutions of 1848 spead to Austria and the Habsburg lands, William H. Stiles, the American chargé d'affaires in Vienna, became both a participant and a chronicler of these watershed events. Stiles, an attorney from Savannah, Georgia, had been a one-term Democ...
 
Iron Curtain: Rust or Rupture?
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: February 19, 2013
"I am profoundly concerned about the European situation," Winston Churchill cabled the new American president, Harry Truman, on May 12, 1945. The war with Germany had been declared over by the victorious allies just a few days previously, but now, Churchill warned, "an iron curtain is...
 
The Ghost of Herbert Hoover
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: February 4, 2013
This article appeared in: Vol. XII, Number 4 - Fall 2012

A review of Freedom Betrayed: Herbert Hoover's Secret History of the Second World War and Its Aftermath, edited with an introduction by George H. Nash

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Alternative Worlds
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: January 16, 2013
"Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future." This quote, variously attributed to Niels Bohr and Yogi Berra, typically graces the introduction of power point presentations by experts who offer strategic forecasts. The gold standard for a number of years was the scenario plan...
 
Classics Review: The Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: January 16, 2013
"The most remarkable work of its kind since the Commentaries of Julius Caesar." So Mark Twain judged The Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant. Twain, to be sure, had a vested interest in offering such an endorsement. He was, after all, Grant's friend and publisher. But truth can be...
 
Classics Review: William Gilpin's
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: December 14, 2012
William Gilpin, sometime U.S. army officer, Western explorer, Mexican War veteran, friend of Andrew Jackson and Thomas Hart Benton, land speculator, and governor of the Colorado Territory (1861-62), is sometimes accorded the title of America's first geopolitician. In a series of articles and spe...
 
Seward's Folly or Farsightedness?
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: December 14, 2012
In the second essay of the Federalist, Publius (John Jay) observed with pleasure that independent America was not composed of detached and distant territories, but that one connected, fertile, widespreading country was the portion of our western sons of liberty. Providence has in a particu...
 
Addendum to Eisenhower's New Look
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: December 14, 2012
On March 1, 1955, Prime Minister Winston Churchill presented the 1955 Defence White Paper to the House of Commons. The document confirmed publicly the government's intention to proceed with the development of a thermonuclear weapon, or hydrogen bomb. In moving acceptance of the White Paper Churc...
 
A New Look at the New Look
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: December 14, 2012
"Th[e] problem is not merely man against man or nation against nation. It is man against war." At first glance, this remark by Dwight Eisenhower in April 1956 appears to have been a strange thing for him to write. Eisenhower, after all, was a career military man who had commanded the great...
 
The Prolific John Keegan
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: November 19, 2012
"I have not been in a battle; not near one, nor heard one from afar, nor seen the aftermath." Thus John Keegan, later Sir John, began his landmark book, The Face of Battle: A Study of Agincourt, Waterloo, and the Somme, published in 1976. Despite this bit of caution Keegan's ...
 
The Founding and the Law of Nations
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: November 19, 2012
When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect...
 
Classics Review: Grading Madison's Examination
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: November 12, 2012
On January 16, 1806, Massachusetts Senator John Quincy Adams, upon entering the Senate chamber, found that copies of a pamphlet had been placed on the members' desks. The document, An Examination of the British Doctrine, Which Subjects to Capture a Neutral Trade, Not Open in Time of Peace,&...
 
Classics Review: Churchill on Afghanistan
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: October 17, 2012
It has frequently been noted that a very large dog has not barked during the 2012 presidential campaign—the war in Afghanistan. Neither President Obama nor his challenger, Mitt Romney, have said much about this decade-long conflict, the first military front opened by the United States in what ...
 
Rise and Fall of Venice
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: October 17, 2012
By the end of the 13th century, the maritime empire created by the Italian city-state of Venice had arguably become the greatest Mediterranean power since Rome. Venice dominated trade between Europe and Asia. Its influence extended from the city proper, at the western edge of the old Byzantine Empir...
 
Eisenhower the Political General
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: October 17, 2012
"Political General." At first glance this title seems to be a contradiction in terms, certainly not something worthy of praise. It brings to mind Courtney Massengale, the self-promoting careerist in the Vietnam War-era novel, Once an Eagle, or, at a darker level of fiction, Joint Chie...
 
The Iron Revolutionary
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: October 17, 2012
"If there is to be revolution, we would rather make it, than suffer it." Thus Otto von Bismarck, minister-president of Prussia, in the midst of his campaign to bring about the unification of Germany. But what sort of revolutionary, exactly, was the man who became known as the Iron Chancell...
 
The Great Warpath
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: September 17, 2012
Eliot Cohen, professor of Strategic Studies and director of the Philip Merrill Center for Strategic Studies at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), always provides a good read of the subject at hand, with stimulating insights into larger matters that should have occurre...
 
First in War, First in Peace
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: September 17, 2012
Frederick the Great of Prussia, who knew a thing or two about generalship, judged that the Christmas campaign of 1776-1777 by the American Continental Army, marked by the battles of Trenton and Princeton, was "the most brilliant of any recorded in the annals of military achievements." T...
 
The Tribe of the Eagle
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: September 17, 2012
The young Abraham Lincoln once reflected on the nature of ancient conquerors like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar and their modern counterpart, Napoleon. He described them as being members of "the family of the lion, or the tribe of the eagle." Such men, he noted, could not be satisf...
 
Classics of the Crimean War
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 15, 2012
It would be something of a stretch to say that the Crimean War (1854-1856) constituted the first modern war, but elements of the conflict clearly foreshadowed military developments that characterized the following century and beyond (most immediately the American Civil War). These elements included ...
 
The Parameters of Victory
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 15, 2012
One of the key concepts of Carl von Clausewitz's On War (1832) is that of "the culminating point of victory," when one side has achieved the maximum possible military advantage relative to the available resources and feasible political aims. Beyond that, battlefield gains wil...
 
Is Geography Destiny?
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 15, 2012
Is geography destiny? Robert D. Kaplan thinks that this is so, or at least that this assumption is close enough for government work. He likes to quote the British geographer Halford J. Mackinder: "Man and not nature initiates, but nature in large measure controls." Kaplan has a book coming...
 
Strategic Pivots and Priorities
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 15, 2012
"The wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy." This judgment was famously rendered by the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Omar Bradley, while testifying before Congress in May 1951. The specific question at hand was whether it was stra...
 
Debating the Monroe Doctrine
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 15, 2012
Must foreign policy doctrines be doctrinaire? Many scholars and practitioners decry so-called doctrines because they put policymakers into the straightjacket of a one-size-fits all strategy that is not always appropriate to a varied and changeable world. If however policymakers deviate from doctrine...
 
Balancing Act
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: July 12, 2012
The Winter 2011/12 issue of the journal International Security contains an essay by David Ekbladh, an assistant professor of History at Tufts, "Present at the Creation: Edward Mead Earle and the Depression-Era Origins of Security Studies." The essay will primarily be of interest ...
 
Russian War Guilt
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: July 12, 2012
The causes of war—or, differently put, the reasons that nations or peoples choose to go to war—is one of the main areas of study in classical and contemporary strategic literature, beginning with Thucydides' concise formulation of fear, honor, and interest. No conflict has been exami...
 
Iron Fist, Velvet Glove
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: July 12, 2012
At the summit, Winston Churchill tells us, true politics and strategy are one. But how exactly are politics and strategy brought together, even assuming that is possible? Can one leader, or a government, formally articulate and execute a grand strategy? Some skeptics argue that "grand strategiz...
 
Mr. X and the Prince of Darkness
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: May 12, 2010
This article appeared in: Vol. X, Number 2 - Spring 2010

A review of The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan, and the History of the Cold War, by Nicholas Thompson

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New World Order
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: May 21, 2007
This article appeared in: Vol. VII, Number 2 - Spring 2007

Kagan argues that, even during its formative years, America was never a modest, insular nation.

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America's Game
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: September 25, 2006
This article appeared in: Vol. VI, Number 4 - Fall 2006

What is it about Roberto Clemente that makes him an American hero?

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The Long Twilight Struggle
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: September 5, 2006
This article appeared in: Vol. VI, Number 3 - Summer 2006

John Lewis Gaddis's evolving history of the Cold War.

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Springtime in Paris
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: October 20, 2003
This article appeared in: Vol. III, Number 4 - Fall 2003

International peace and justice requires the sustained application of power and purpose that cannot be generated by the international community.

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Wilson's World
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: February 17, 2003
This article appeared in: Vol. III, Number 2 Spring 2003

A review of a The Ideas that Conquered the World: Peace, Democracy, and Free Markets in the Twenty-first Century, by Michael Mandelbaum

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The Reluctant Empire
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: December 5, 2002
This article appeared in: Vol. III , Number 1 Winter 2002/03

 That Americans have so far avoided the imperial temptation is much to their credit, but this has not been without cost.

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Small Wars, Big Deal
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: September 9, 2002
This article appeared in: Vol. II, Number 4 - Fall 2002

 In the future, the United States likely will undertake smaller-scale military operations, in conjunction with intelligence-gathering units, law enforcement agencies,...

 
Preparing for the War After the War on Terrorism
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: November 28, 2001
This article appeared in: Vol. II, Number 1 - Fall 2001

Why Americans should be concerned with the Quadrennial Defense Review

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Balancing Act: How We Won the Cold War
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: August 30, 2001
This article appeared in: Vol. I, Number 4 - Summer 2001

How the United States won the Cold War

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The Spirits of Geneva
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: July 15, 2014
This article appeared in: Volume IV, No. 3 - Fall 1985
Above all, he [Gorbachev] is a leader who can make plans for the year 2000 with a reasonable expectation that he will still be in power to witness their frustration or fruition. Such a leader might conclude, or be persuaded, that the fulfillment of his visions can best be guaranteed by a...
 
Burned Out
By: Patrick J. Garrity
Posted: July 9, 2014
This article appeared in: Volume II, No. 4 - Winter 1983

A review of several books on national security by Jimmy Carter, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Harold Brown, and Cyrus Vance

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